Treaty between the Kingdom of the Hawaiian Islands and the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, concluded by R. C. Wyllie, Esquire, His Hawaiian Majesty's Minister of Foreign Relations, Member of His Privy Council of State and of His House of Nobles, and C.A. Virgin, Chamberlain to His Majesty the King of Sweden, Post Captain of the Royal Swedish Navy, Knight of the Royal Order of the Sword of Sweden and of the Imperial Russian Order of St. Stanislaus; signed at Honolulu the 1 July 1852.
It being of great advantage to establish relations of friendship and commerce between the Kingdoms of His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway and the Kingdom of His Majesty the King of the Hawaiian Islands, the undersigned, having exchanged their powers, mutually admitted as sufficient, have agreed, on the part of their respective Sovereigns, to conclude a Treaty of Friendship, commerce and Navigation, as follows:
There shall be perpetual friendship between His Majesty the King of the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, His Heirs and Successors, and the King of the Hawaiian Islands, His Heirs and Successors, and between their respective subjects.
There shall be between all the dominions of His Swedish and Norwegian Majesty, and the Hawaiian Islands, a reciprocal freedom of commerce. The subjects of each of the two contracting parties, respectively, shall have liberty freely and securely to come with their ships and cargoes, to all places, ports and rivers, in the territories of the other, where trade with other nations is permitted. They may remain and reside in any part of the said territories, respectively, and hire and occupy houses and warehouses, and may trade, by wholesale or retail, in all kinds of produce, manufactures and merchandise of lawful commerce; enjoying the same exemptions and privileges as native subjects, and subject always to the same laws, and established customs, as native subjects.
In like manner the ships of war of each contracting party, respectively, shall have liberty to enter into all harbours, rivers, and places, within the territories of the other to which the ships of war of other nations are or may be permitted to come, to anchor there, and to remain and refit; subject always to the laws and regulations of the two countries respectively.
The stipulations of this article do not apply to the coasting trade, which each contracting party reserves to itself, respectively, and shall regulate according to its own laws.
The two contracting parties hereby agree, that any favour, privilege, or immunity whatever, in matters of commerce or navigation, which either contracting party has actually granted, or may hereafter grant, to the subjects or citizens of any other state, shall be extended to the subjects or citizens of the other contracting party, gratuitously, if the concession in favour of that other state shall have been gratuitous, or in return for a compensation as nearly as possible of proportionate value and effect, to be adjusted by mutual agreement, if the concession shall have been conditional.
No other or higher duties shall be imposed on the importation into the dominions of His Swedish and Norwegian Majesty of any article, the growth, produce or manufacture of His Swedish and Norwegian Majesty's dominions, that are or shall be payable on the like article, being the growth, produce or manufacture of any other foreign country.
Nor shall any other or higher duties or charges be imposed in the territories of either of the contracting parties on the exportation of any article to the territories of the other, than such as are or may be payable on the exportation of the like article to any other foreign country. No prohibition shall be imposed upon the importation of any article, the growth, produce or manufacture of the territories of either of the two contracting parties, into the territories of the other, which shall not equally extend to the importation of the like articles, being the growth, produce or manufacture of any other country. Nor shall any prohibition be imposed upon the exportation of any article from the territories of either of the two contracting parties to the territories of the other, which shall not equally extend to the exportation of the like articles to the territories of all other nations.
No other or higher duties or charges on account of tonnage, light, or harbour dues, pilotage, quarantine, salvage in cases of damage or shipwreck, or any other local charges shall be imposed in any of the ports of the Hawaiian Islands on Swedish and Norwegian vessels, than those payable in the same ports by Hawaiian vessels, nor in the ports of His Swedish and Norwegian Majesty's territories, on Hawaiian vessels, than shall be payable in the same ports on Swedish and Norwegian vessels.
The same duties shall be paid on the importation of any article which is or may be legally importable into the Hawaiians Islands, whether such importation shall be in Hawaiian or in Swedish and Norwegian vessels; and the same duties shall be paid on the importation of any article which is or may be legally importable into the dominions of His Swedish and Norwegian or in Hawaiian vessels. The same duties shall be paid, and the same bounties and drawbacks allowed, on the exportation of any article which is or may be legally exportable from the Hawaiian Islands, whether such exportation shall be in Hawaiian or in Swedish and Norwegian vessels; and the same duties shall be paid, and the same bounties and drawbacks allowed, on the exportation of any article which is or may be legally exportable from His Swedish and Norwegian Majesty's dominions, whether such exportation shall be in Swedish and Norwegian or in Hawaiian vessels.
Swedish and Norwegian whale ships shall have access to the ports of Hilo, Kealakekua and Hanalei in the Sandwich Islands for the purpose of refitment and refreshment, as well as to the ports of Honolulu and Lahaina, which two last mentioned ports only are ports of entry for all merchant vessels; and in all the above named ports they shall be permitted to trade or to barter their supplies or goods, excepting spirituous liquors, to the additional amount of one thousand dollars ad valorem, for each vessel, paying upon the additional goods and articles so traded and bartered no other or higher duties than are payable on like goods and articles when imported in national vessels and by native subjects. They shall also be permitted to pass from port to port of the Sandwich Islands for the purpose of procuring refreshments, but they shall not discharge their seamen, or land their passengers in the said Islands, except at Honolulu and Lahaina; and in all the ports named in this article, Swedish and Norwegian whale ships shall enjoy in all respects whatsoever all the rights, privileges and immunities which are or may be enjoyed by national whale ships, or by whale ships of the most favored nation.
The like privilege of frequenting the three ports of the Sandwich Islands named in this article, which are not ports of entry for merchant vessels, is also guaranteed to all the public armed vessels of Sweden and Norway. But nothing in this article shall be construed as authorizing any Swedish or Norwegian vessel having on board any disease usually regarded as requiring quarantine, to enter during the continuance of any such disease on board, any ports of the Sandwich Islands other than Honolulu or Lahaina.
All merchants, commanders of ships and others, the subjects of His Swedish and Norwegian Majesty, shall have full liberty in the Hawaiian Islands, to manage their own affairs themselves or to commit them to the management of whomsoever they please, as broker, factor, agent or interpreter; nor shall they be obliged to employ any other persons than those employed by Hawaiian subjects, nor to pay to such persons as they shall think fit to employ, any higher salary or remuneration than such as is paid in like cases by Hawaiian subjects. Swedish and Norwegian subjects in the Hawaiian Islands shall be at liberty to buy from and to sell to whom they like, without being restrained or prejudiced by any monopoly, contract or exclusive privilege of sale or purchase whatever; and absolute freedom shall be allowed in all cases to the buyer and seller, to bargain and fix the price of any goods, wares or merchandise, imported into or exported from the Hawaiian Islands, as they shall see good: observing the laws and established customs of those Islands. The same privileges shall be enjoyed in the dominions of His Swedish and Norwegian Majesty by Hawaiian subjects under the same conditions.
The subjects of either of the contracting parties in the territories of the other shall receive and enjoy full and perfect protection for their persons and property, and shall have free and open access to the Courts of Justice in the said countries, respectively, for the prosecution and defence of their just rights, and they shall be at liberty to employ, in all causes, the advocates, attorneys, or agents of whatever description, whom they may think proper; and they shall enjoy in this respect the same rights and privileges as native subjects.
In whatever relates to the police of the ports, the lading and unlading of ships, the warehousing and safety of merchandise, goods and effects, the succession to personal estates by will or otherwise, and the disposal of personal property of every sort and denomination by sale, donation, exchange or testament, or in any other manner whatsoever, as also with regard to the administration of justice, the subjects of each contracting party shall enjoy in the territories of the other, the same privileges, liberties and rights as native subjects, and they shall not be charged in any of these respects with any other or higher impost or duties, than those which are or may be paid by native subjects; subject always to the local laws and regulations of such territories.
In the event of any subject of either of the two contracting parties dying without will or testament in the territories of the other contracting party, the Consul General, Consul or acting Consul of the nation to which the deceased may belong, shall so far as the laws of each country will permit, take charge of the property which the deceased may have left for the benefit of his lawful heirs and creditors, until an executor or administrator be named according to the laws of the country in which the death shall have taken place.
The subjects of His Swedish and Norwegian Majesty residing in the Hawaiian Islands, and Hawaiian subjects residing in the dominions of His Swedish and Norwegian Majesty shall be exempted from all compulsory military service whatsoever, whether by sea or by land, and from all forced loans, or military exactions or requisitions, and they shall not be compelled under any pretext whatsoever to pay any ordinary charges, requisitions or taxes, other or higher than those that are or may be paid by native subjects.
It is agreed and covenanted that neither of the two contracting parties shall knowingly receive into, or retain in its service, any subjects of the other party who have deserted from the naval or military services of that other party, but that on the contrary, each of the contracting parties shall, respectively, discharge from its service any such deserters upon being required by the other party so to do.
And it is further agreed that if any of the crew shall desert from a vessel of war, or merchant vessel of either contracting party, while such vessel is within any port in the territory of the other party, the authorities of such port and territory shall be bound to give every assistance in their power for the apprehension of such deserters, on application to that effect being made by the consul of the party concerned, or by the deputy or representative of the consul; and no public body shall protect or harbour such deserters.
It is further agreed and declared that any other favour or facility with respect to the recovery of deserters, which either of the contracting parties has granted or may hereafter grant to any other state, shall be considered as granted also to the other contracting party, in the same manner as if such favour or facility had been expressly stipulated by the present treaty.
It shall be free for each of the two contracting parties to appoint Consuls for the protection of trade to reside in the territories of the other party, but, before any consul shall act as such, he shall in the usual form be approved and admitted by the government to which he is sent; and either of the contracting parties may except from the residence of consuls such particular places as either of them may judge fit to be excepted. The diplomatic agents and consuls of the Hawaiian Islands in the dominions of His Swedish and Norwegian Majesty shall enjoy whatever privileges, exemptions and immunities are or shall be granted there to agents of the same rank belonging to the most favoured nation; and in like manner the diplomatic agents and consuls of His Swedish and Norwegian Majesty in the Hawaiian Islands shall enjoy whatever privileges, exemptions or immunities are or may be granted there to the diplomatic agents and consuls of the same rank belonging to the most favoured nation.
For the better security of commerce between the subjects of His Swedish and Norwegian Majesty and of the King of the Hawaiian Islands, it is agreed that if, at any time, any rupture or any interruption of friendly intercourse should unfortunately take place between the two contracting parties the subjects of either of the two contracting parties, shall be allowed a year to wind up their accounts and dispose of their property, and a safe conduct shall be given them to embark at the port which they shall themselves select. All subjects of either of the two contracting parties who may be established in the territories of the other in the exercise of any trade or special employment shall in such case have the privilege of remaining and continuing such trade and employment therein, without any manner of interruption, in full enjoyment of their liberty and property, as long as they behave peaceably and commit no offence against the laws; and their goods and effects, of whatever description they may be, whether in their own custody or entrusted to individuals or to the state, shall not be liable to seizure or sequestration, or to any other charges or demands than those which may be made upon the like effects or property belonging to native subjects. In the same case debts between individuals, public funds, and the shares of companies shall never be confiscated, sequestered or detained.
The subjects of His Swedish and Norwegian Majesty, residing in the Hawaiian Islands, shall not be disturbed, persecuted or annoyed on account of their religion, but they shall have perfect liberty of conscience therein, and shall be allowed to celebrate Divine Service either within their own private houses or in their own particular churches or chapels, which they shall be at liberty to build and maintain in convenient places, approved of by the Government of the said Islands. Liberty shall also be granted to them to bury in burial places, which in the same manner they may freely establish and maintain, such subjects of His Swedish and Norwegian Majesty, who may die in the said Islands. In like manner Hawaiian subjects shall enjoy within the dominions of His Swedish and Norwegian Majesty perfect and unrestrained liberty of conscience, and shall be allowed to exercise their religion publicly or privately, within their own dwelling houses, or in the chapels or place of worship appointed to that purpose, agreeably to the system of toleration established in the dominions of His said Majesty.
All vessels bearing the flag of Sweden or of Norway in time of war shall receive every possible protection, short of actual hostility, within the ports and waters of His Majesty the King of the Hawaiian Islands; and His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway engages to respect in time of war the neutral rights of the Hawaiian Kingdom and to use his good offices with all other powers, having treaties with His Majesty the King of the Hawaiian Islands, to induce them to adopt the same policy towards the Hawaiian Kingdom.
If any ship of war or merchant vessel, of either of the contracting parties should be wrecked on the coasts of the other, such ship or vessel or any parts thereof, and all furniture and appurtenance belonging thereunto, and all goods and merchandise which shall be saved therefrom, or the produce thereof, if sold, shall be faithfully restored to the proprietors upon being claimed by them or by their duly authorized agents, and if there are no such proprietors or agents on the spot, then the said goods or merchandise, or the proceeds therof, as well as all the papers found on board such wrecked ship or vessel shall be delivered to the Swedish and Norwegian or Hawaiian consul in whose district the wreck may have taken place, and such consul, proprietors or agents shall pay only the expences incurred in the preservation of the property, together with the rate of salvage which would have been payable in the like case of a wreck of a national vessel. The goods and merchandise saved from the wreck shall not be subject to duties, unless cleared for consumption.
In order that the two contracting parties may have the opportunity of hereafter trading and agreeing upon such other arrangements as may tend still further to the improvement of their mutual intercourse, and to the advancement of the interests of their respective subjects, it is agreed that at any time after the expiration of seven years from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, either of the contracting parties shall have the right of giving to the other party notice of its intentions to terminate Articles 4, 5 and 6 of the present Treaty; and that at the expiration of 18 months after such notice shall have been received by either party from the other, the said articles, and all the stipulations contained therein shall cease to be binding on the two contracting parties.
The present Treaty shall be ratified and the Ratifications shall be exchanged at Honolulu in eighteen months, or sooner, if possible.
In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and affixed thereto their respective seals.
Done at Honolulu this first day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty two.