HAWAII (KINGDOM) Flag of the Kuhina Nui 1850's


Hawaii (Kingdom) State and national flag: ensign 1816-25 February 1843; 31 July 1843-20 May 1845 (variant)


Hawaii Government and general usage flag 20 May 1845-1 February 1893; 1 April 1893- present (official since 3 July 1894, specifications from 8 April 1896) Proportions 1 x 2

King Kamemnameha I, who succeeded in uniting the Hawaiian islands into a single kingdom, received a British Union Jack form the explorer, Captain George Vancouver, in 1793. On 25 February of the following year the accepted and informal British pretectorate over his islands and, although this act was never ratified by the British government, the Union Jack in both it pre- and post- 1801 forms (IV-c and IV-e) flew as the unofficial Hawaiian flag until 1816. By this time, Hawaiians realized that there were disadvantages as well as advantages to the use of another nation's flag. In 1816 when Kaahumanu sailed for China as the first Hawaiian ship to travel abroad, it flew a distinctive Hawaiian Flag which added red, white, and blue stripes to the Union Jack. The flag was disigned by the King with the assistance of Alexander Adams, Isaac Davis, and John Young, although Captain George Beckley claimed credit for the design. There was no standard pattern for the Hawaiian flag in its early years. The form illustrated in XXII-b was the usual version. but contemporary pictures and accounts indicate variations (seven strips instead of nine, no stripes of blue, etc.

Throughout the nineteeth century the Kingdom of Hawaii fought to preserve its independence against threats of annexation posed by the United States, Britain, France, and other counntries. From 25 February until 31 July of 1843 British troops occupied Hawaii and all Hawaiian flags were destroyed. On the restoration of freedom, King Kamehameha III watched while a Hawaiian flag which included a dove and olive branch was hoisted. Then he gave a prayer of thanksgiving containing the phrase which thereafter became a national (now State) motto: "Ua mau ke ea o ka 'aini i ka pono" ("The life of the land is perpetuated by righteousness").

On 20 May 1845 a slightly modified version of the national flag (XXII-c) was introduced in which the number of stripes was set at eight, to represent the principal islands of Hawaii (Hawaii, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai, Niihau, Kauai, and Kahoolawe). The French did not lower the Hawaiian flag during their brief occupation in 1849. In order to forestall another French occupation in 1851, the King and Council approved a measure establishing a temporary American protectorate. The new flag was to have been sewn with the Hawaiian flag on one side and the United States flag on the reverse, but the plan never went into effect.

XI a

Flag of the Kuhina Nui 1850's

XI b

Coat of Arms

Hawaii (Kingdom) Royal standard c1874-c1891 (variant)

In the 1850's the flag (XI a) of the Kuhina Nui, who next in authority to the King, bore the royal emblem, the coat of arms of Hawaii (see XI b). was originally designed by High Chief Haalilio. The shield and crown of these arms appeared in the center of the royal standard quarters of the arms display the stripes of the national flag. The supporters are the brothers Kamanawa and Kameeiamoku, who aided Kamehameha I in uniting Hawaii; their royality is shown by the feather cloaks and helmets they wear. Kamanawa holds a spear, symbolic of state power, while his brother has a kahili or feather-covered staff, which indicates royal prerogatives. The second and third quarters of the shield each show a puloulou, the emblem of protection and refuge, which was set up near the King's palace door. In the center are the alia (crossed spears) and puela (triangular standard) which appeared near the palace door as religious symbols. The puela was also raised by the ancient Hawaiian chiets as a kind of flag on their boats.

In the last decade of the ninteenth century American settler and commercial interests increased their agitation for annexation of Hawaii to the United States. Finally, in January 1893 the Reform Party which represented these groups staged a coup d'état and deposed Queen Liliuokalani. While their Provisional Government waited for news of American annexation, the flag of the United States flew over Hawaii from 1 February until 1 April. When annexation was rejected, plans were made for a Republic of Hawaii. This regime was inaugurated in 1894 and lasted untill 12 Angust 1898 when Hawaii became a territory of the United States. Under the Provisional Government and then as a Republic, Territory, and State (since 1959) Hawaii has kept its former national flag, as legally confirmed in 1894. 1903, and 1959.

Hawaii Governor's flag c1959-present (unofficial) Proportions 25 x 36

Using the royal arms as a basic pattern, Viggo Jacobsen created a new Hawaiian coat of arms which the Republic accepted in 1896. The supporters are now King Kamehameha I and the Goddess of Liberty holing a Hawaiian flag; a rising sun replace the royal crown; and a phonenix appears at the bottom, framed with taro leaves, maidenhair fern, and banana foliage. In the center the alia and puela were replaced by a star, indicating the desire to be admitted to Statehood. In 1901 and 1959 the coat of arms was appropriately modified to serve as a seal, first for the Territory and then (above) the State Hawaii.

In 1925 Governor Wallace R. Farrington asked Colonal P. M. Smoot, the Adjutant General, to report on the Governor's flag which his predecessor had disigned. Finding no legal basis for it, Colonel Smoot proposed a flag of blue over red stripes with eight white stars surrounding the intitials TH (for the Territory of Hawaii) in white in the center. This was approved on 14 March 1925. In 1959 the flag (XXXIII-b) was modified for use by the Governor of the new State when the word "Hawaii" was substituted for the initials.

From: The Flag Book of the United States
Whitney Smith
Director, Flag Research Center
Lexington, Massachusetts
Illustations by Louis Loynes & Lucien Philippe
Willian Marrow & Company, Inc.
New York

The flag of the U.S. state of Hawaii, incorporating the Union Flag.

Union Flag, also known as the Union Jack, is the flag of the British Emperior.
The double cross of St. George and St. Andrew
the Red Crosse, commonly called St. George’s Crosse, and the White Crosse, commonly called St. Andrew’s Crosse.

Vatican (from the air)
court yard = keyhole = key of the cross = the cross is World demomention.
Go back to the Vatican (from the air)


Evolution of the Union flag

St Andrews cross
St Georges cross
St Patricks cross
Union flag 1801


The Union Flag was used by the United States in its first flag, the Grand Union Flag. This flag was of a similar design to the one used by the British East India Company. Hawaii, a state of the United States, incorporates the Union Jack in its state flag. According to one story, the King of Hawaii asked the British mariner, George Vancouver, during a stop in Lahaina, what the piece of cloth flying from his ship was. Vancouver replied that it represented his King's authority. The Hawaiian King then flew the flag as a symbol of royal authority (his own) not recognising its national derivation. Hawaii's flag represents the only current use of the Union Jack in any American state.

I found these (below) at: http://www.loeser.us/flags/spanish.html

Hawaiian Royal Standard 1810-1895

There were eight royal monarchs of Hawaii, from the formation of the Kingdom in 1810, until the overthrow of the Monarchy in 1893. This was one of their royal standards.

This Hawaiian Royal Standard shows the Hawaiian Coat-of-Arms, designed by Timothy Haalilio, the private secretary to King Kamehameha III. The heraldic description of the Coat Arms is: "Quarterly, 1 stand 4th the stripes of the national banner, 2nd and 3r dor, a Puloulou– a ball argent on a staff sable – in escutcheon vert, a Puela – a triangular banner argent – over an Alia – two spears argent in saltire. The supporters are the twin brothers Kameeiamoku and Kamanawa, statant, clad in the ancient feather cloak and helmet, the one on the dexter bearing a spear and the one on the sinister bearing a Kahili. Over all, a representation of the Hawaiian Crown. Mantle, a King’s feather cloak and the Kings new motto: "Ua mau ke ea o ka aina I ka pono."

In ancient times Puloulou were placed on either side of the door to the King’s house, or other building under royal authority, to indicate protection or a place of refuge, to which a person might flee from danger and be safe. The Puela was a banner which was raised to the masthead of a Kings or Noble´s vessel, a form of ancient Hawaiian vexilloloid; on land it was placed across the Alia in front of a dwelling to indicate royal protection. A Kahiliis tall staff topped with a cylinder of feathers which was, and still is, used as a mark of an individual’s noble or royal standing.

Hawaiian Royal Standard (Variant) 1810-1895

It is interesting to note that Hawaii is the only U.S. state that was once a kingdom with its own monarchy. The only real royal palaces in the United States are in Hawaii.

The Iolani Palace was completed in 1882, during the reign of David Kalakaua, the last king of Hawaii. It had electricity years before the White House did. The last royal to live there was Kalakaua's sister, Queen Liliuokalani, who abdicated in 1895 after the overthrow of the monarchy.

The white variant is shown on the Hawaiian Kingdom Government website as the Royal Standard, and a flag of that type survives from King David Kalakaua’s coronation. There is some speculation, however, that this flag might be the personal standard of Princess Lydia Liliuokalani, heir presumptive to King Kalakaua. The other two personal standards shown below are those of Liliuokalani’s younger sister Princess Miriam Likelike and her daughter Princess Victoria Kaiulani, respectively, second and third in line to the throne. Thus, it seems logical that the Heir Presumptive would have had a personal standard since her younger sister and niece had their personal standards.

Princess Likelike Flag 1851-1887

Princess Miriam Likelike (1851–1887) was the younger sister of Princess (later Queen) Lydia Liliuokalani, and thus second in line for the throne of King David Kalakaua. In 1870, she married Archibald Scott Cleghorn, a businessman from Scotland almost twice her age. Five years later she gave birth to a daughter, Princess Kaiulani, who would be the only Kalakaua of her generation. From that time on Kaiulani became the focus her life and the future of the kingdom she might one day inherit. The marriage didn't last, however, and in the end the princess simply returned to Big Island of Hawaii and refused to go back to her husband. She later served as Governor of the island in 1879-1880.

Princess Likelike was well-liked by all, and her home was opened to important people from all over the world. She had a reputation of being a kindly, gracious hostess in almost every country of Europe and almost every state of the union. She would always be up with the latest fashions, ordering dresses and clothing from Paris. The cause of the princess's death is still unknown; she is said to have simply taken to her bed and refused all food. On February 2, 1887, Princess Likelike died at age 36, before her daughter reached her teenage years.

Princess Kaiulani Flag 1875-1899

Crown Princess Victoria Kaiulani (1875-1899) was the daughter of Princess Miriam Likelike, and the last heir to the Hawaiian throne. She became known throughout the world for her intelligence, beauty and determination. After the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893, she spearheaded a campaign to restore the Kingdom. In New York, she made many speeches and public appearances denouncing the overthrow of her government. In Washington, D.C., she spoke before the United States Congress and pleaded with U.S. President Benjamin Harrison and later Grover Cleveland, but her negotiations could not prevent eventual annexation. In 1898, while on a horse ride in the mountains of Hawaii, she got caught in a storm and came down with a fever. She never completely recovered and died in 1899 at the age of 23. Her life story grew to legendary proportions after her death. Some Hawaiians believe that Kaiulani died of a broken heart, having suffered many losses in her life. Her father said that he thought that since Hawaii was gone, it was fitting for Kaiulani to go as well. She is buried in Honolulu's Royal Mausoleum of Hawaii.

After her death, her aunt, the deposed Queen Liliuokalani, recognized another relative, David Kawananakoa as the heir of Hawaiian Royal House, and adopted him.

The Kuhina Nui Flag 1816-1864

The Kuhina Nui, which translates directly as "Great Minister," but was generally translated as "Premier" in the first half of the 19th century, was an official, generally the Queen or some other member of the Royal Family, could exercise all the executive powers of the King if necessary.

The office was abolished in 1864, and hence the use of the standard. After 1864, the Hawaiian Premier or Prime Minister was a Cabinet member in the usual sense who didn’t have a flag.

The Kuhina Nui flag is described in the French naval book as being the banner of Princess Victoria Kamamalu, which is true to a point. She held the office of Kuhina Nuifrom 1855 to 1864 in the reigns of both King Kamehameha IV and King Kamehameha V, but as the position was appointive and one served, as the lawyers say, "at pleasure," the appointment could have been revoked at any time and given to someone else. In that case, the flag would have gone to the new appointee.

Hawaiian Naval Ensign 1887-1898

The Hawaiian navy developed from the village warriors of Kona under Kamehameha I, who unified Hawaii in 1810. The navy used both traditional canoes and uniforms like the gourd helmets and loincloths, as well as western technology like artillery cannons, muskets, and small European ships. When Kamehameha died in 1819 he left his son Liholiho a large "navy" with thousands of warcanoes and a few larger warships.

King Kalakaua (1874-1891) was interested in modernising the Hawaiian military. As part of this program a training vessel, H.M.S. Kaimiloa, was acquired and in 1887 the King requested Isobel Strong to design a naval ensign. The charges on the shield, a Puloulou and two crossed red Kahilis, represent the King and his heirs. There is photographic evidence of H.M.S. Kaimiloa flying a jack bearing the eight stripes of the national banner, but the photograph does not show the commission pennant, so that may or may not have still been in use in 1887.

By 1887, both the army and navy, had shrunk in size to eventually become that of a royal bodyguard and police force.

Native Hawaiian Flag c1810

The Kanaka Maoli (native Hawaiian) flag is said to have been Kamehameha’s personal flag long before the modern Hawaiian flag. British Navy Captain Lord George Paulet destroyed it when he took control of Hawaii for five months in 1843.

At the flag´s center is a green shield bearing a coat of arms, which include a kahili, the original Hawaiian royal standard, and two paddles, meant to represent the voyaging tradition of the Native Hawaiians. The flag´s color scheme is red, yellow and green, meant to represent different groups within Hawaiian society. The yellow is symbolic of the "alii," the powerful royal class. Red represents the "konohiki," the landed caste that served the alii. Green signifies the "makaainana," or commoners.

The flag has become popular in recent years and can be found on everything from t-shirts to bumper stickers.